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    農民姓名英譯的意義及借鑒研究

    減小字體 增大字體 作者:佚名  來源:www.zrjmjx.com  發布時間:最新發布
    農民姓名英譯的意義及借鑒研究是小柯畢業論文網通過網絡搜集,并由本站工作人員整理后發布的,農民姓名英譯的意義及借鑒研究是篇質量較高的學術論文,供本站訪問者學習和學術交流參考之用,不可用于其他商業目的,農民姓名英譯的意義及借鑒研究的論文版權歸原作者所有,因網絡整理,有些文章作者不詳,敬請諒解,如需轉摘,請注明出處小柯論文網,如果此論文無法滿足您的論文要求,您可以申請本站幫您定制論文,以下是正文。
     內容摘要:由于漢英文化差異和諺語的語言特征,漢語諺語英譯存在表達不當的問題。本文依據弗雷格的涵義與指稱理論,以《馬首農言》英譯為例,分析農諺在英漢表達中涵義與指稱的異同,指出農諺誤譯的原因主要在于對文化意象的理解不當。研究成果有助于譯者注重意象涵義的對應轉換,推動基本概念的英譯修正 
      關鍵詞:涵義 指稱 專名 農諺 典籍英譯 
      1.引言 
      農諺是人類在長期生活中對生活經驗的總結,濃縮了中華民族的哲學思想、思維方式、價值觀念等核心內涵。在諺語翻譯研究上,馮慶華認為諺語翻譯應注重其口語化特點和語言的藝術性,切忌望文生義的去套譯原文[1]。曾東京認為諺語翻譯時不能為追求“順”與“地道”而夾雜具有漢民族鮮明文化特色的專名、典故與成語[2]。綜上,翻譯諺語首先要保持語義等值,其次要盡可能保留原文語言特色,再次譯文要有語言美感。 
      2.涵義與指稱理論概述 
      弗雷格(Gottlob Frege,1848- 
      1925),19世紀末德國的數理邏輯學家、語言哲學家。弗雷格對涵義與指稱的區分是其理論核心,他認為“應該嚴格地區分符號(專名、概念詞和句子)、符號的涵義和意謂,符號的意謂是指該符號所特指的對象,它的涵義就是符號所表達的、或所包含的指稱方式或表達模式的東西,并且符號的涵義決定了它的意謂。”[3]本文著重探討專名的意義。 
      弗雷格認為專名既有指稱,也有涵義。“專名表達它的涵義,并且命名或指示它的指稱。我們令指號表達它的涵義并且命名它的指稱。”[4]專名是通過其涵義與其指稱發生關系的,涵義決定指稱。 
      弗雷格指出,某物的名稱可以由幾個詞或不同的指號組成,幾個不同的名稱分別表達不同的涵義,如啟明星(Morning Star)和長庚星(Evening Star)具有相同的指稱。而同一詞語在不同語境中會有不同的指稱,可以作出不同的理解,如“亞里士多德”這一專名,在不同場合可作不同理解。同時,不是所有的意義都有相應的指稱,“對于涵義的把握并不能保證相應的指稱的存在”,比如unicorn、if、not、so等都具有意義,但指稱卻不確定[5]。 
      3.涵義與指稱理論下的農諺英譯分析 
      《馬首農言》為清代文人祁雋藻所著,是一部優秀的農業著作。本文依據涵義與指稱理論,結合《馬首農言》諺語英譯實踐,將農諺中的意象分為以下幾類: 
      3.1漢英指稱相同,涵義不同 
      ST1:春分有雨家家忙。 
      Student 1: The rain on the Spring Equinox matters much. 
      Student 2: A rain on Spring Equinox makes families busy. 
      在中國,春分這一節氣從3月21日(或22日)持續到4月4日(或5日),預示著春天已過半。但由于氣溫、雨水等因素影響,一些農民不得不推遲播種。如果四月初還沒有播種,農民就會錯過最佳的播種時間。此時下一場春雨,可謂及時雨,農民就會馬上開犁。可見,此諺語中的“春分”并非指具體的一天,而是一段時間。由于“春分”等二十四節氣中的隱含意義在外國人的認知中是不存在的,若直接譯為“Spring Equinox”,農諺的意義沒有得到進一步闡釋。因此在翻譯中,譯者需將文化內涵明示化,以便讀者推理出理想語境,進而理解漢語農諺的意義。綜上,此諺語可譯為:A timely rain in early April would make farmers busy sowing if they haven’t vet. 
      3.2漢語指稱不定,漢英涵義不同 
      ST2:天河掉角吃角角,天河東西吃新米。 
      Student 1: The Milky Way is south-north, we eat beans; the Milky Way is east-west, we eat millet. 
      Student 2: The life you’re living decides the food you’re eating. 
      古人夜觀星象,總結規律,以農諺的形式代代相傳,用來指導農業生產活動。“天河”是銀河別稱,只在晴天夜晚可見,呈銀白色帶狀。這句農諺意思是,天河呈南北走向時,是吃豆角的季節;呈東西走向時,是吃新米的季節。“角”在“掉角”與“角角”中所指不同,前者是形象描述天河南北走向時,形如角狀;后者則是對豆角的昵稱。一字有多指稱多涵義的現象在農諺中廣泛存在,又如: 
      ST3:七月十五游花田(蕎麥開花)。 
      ST4:小滿花,不回家。 
      由于農諺用字簡練,“花”的指稱不定,涵義也不同。農諺“七月十五游花田”中,“花”指蕎麥開花,在農歷七月十五左右正是盛花期。因此,可譯為:Enjoy the blossom of the buckwheat around lunar July 15th.而“小滿花,不回家”一句中,“花”指棉花,一種生長期較長的作物。在華北地區,正常播種的棉花,整個生長期在200天左右。但是,此地區的平均無霜期只有180天左右,往往當棉花在大量吐絮的時候,就遇到秋季霜凍,棉花的產量和品質都受到很大影響。所以,適時播種是保證棉花豐產的重要環節。實踐證明,棉花產量和播種期的關系,谷雨是一條界線,過了谷雨,播種越晚,產量越低,如果遲到小滿,就連收成也很難保證,即“小滿花,不回家”,可譯為:Do not plant cotton after Lesser Fullness of Grain, or you will get a bad harvest. 
      漢語意象指稱不定的情況十分常見,譯者要正確理解意象在原文中的涵義,然后思考英譯是否能準確表達該意象的核心要義,必要時可加上注釋說明或提供多種譯文供讀者參考。 3.3漢語有涵義,英語無指稱 
      ST5:夏至三庚入伏,立秋五戊為社。 
      Student 1: The third Geng after June Solstice, is the hottest day; the fifth Wu after Autumn Begins, is the Community day. 
      Student 2: Twenty days after the Summer Solstice, the hottest part of the summer begins; thirty days after the Beginning of Autumn, the sacrificial festival approaches. 
      我國古代流行“干支紀日法”,用10個天干與12地支相配而成的60組不同的名稱來記日子,循環使用。庚日的“庚”字是“甲、乙、丙、丁、戊、己、庚、辛、壬、癸”10個天干中的第7個字,庚日每10天重復一次。從夏至開始,第3個庚日出現時,為初伏第一天,即“夏至三庚入伏”。“立秋五戊為社”意為立秋后的第五個戊日是秋社(秋季祭祀土地神的日子)。我國是農耕大國,總結出干支紀年法等獨具特色的規律,但西方并不存在這類共識,因而中國農諺中一些具有特色文化背景的詞語在英語中無指稱,具有不可譯性。在保證讀者準確理解源語意義的前提下,譯者可以采用拼音加注的方法,保留源語特色詞匯,或加注釋為讀者提供相應的背景知識。 
      3.4漢英涵義指稱相同 
      漢英兩種語言在思維方式、表達手法、語言結構等方面存在差異,但也具有一定共性。基于勞動者們對同一生產現象的相同認知,有些漢英農諺的表達方式、隱含意思近乎一致。例如,“一燕不成夏”可采取直譯法譯為“One swallow does not make a summer”;又如“瑞雪兆豐年”可譯為“A timely big snow promises a good harvest”。“燕”、“夏”、“瑞雪”、“豐年”這類專名的涵義指稱在漢語和英語中均相同,不構成理解差異,英譯較為簡單。 
      4.結語 
      由于中西語言文化差異,以及漢英表達特色,中國農業典籍英譯中存在許多漢語指稱不定、漢語有涵義無指稱的現象。這就需要譯者在翻譯典籍時從跨文化視角理解專名的涵義與指稱,對典籍中易產生誤解的意象“追根溯源”,正確把握意象的涵義,必要時附注釋或提供多譯文供讀者參考,做到譯文與原文內涵上的對等,構建適合目標語讀者的認知語境,推動農業文獻等典籍英譯的規范化。 
      參考文獻 
      [1]馮慶華.實用翻譯教程:英漢互譯(增訂本)[M].上海:上海外語教育出版社,2001. 
      [2]曾東京.新英語諺語詞典[K].上海:上海大學出版社,2009. 
      [3]陳曉平.專名、摹狀詞和命題的涵義與指稱—兼評弗雷格的意義理論[J]. 哲學分析,2012(12). 
      [4]Frege. On sense and Reference.成曉光(編).西方語言學教程[M].大連:遼寧師范大學出版社,2005. 
      [5]徐夢依.以漢語諺語英譯為例淺析漢英語言文化差異[J].海外英語,2016(9). 
      [6]高恩廣,胡輔華.《馬首農言注釋》[M].北京:農業出版社,1991. 
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