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    BDF技術在電力通信網主備鏈路切換中的應用研究

    減小字體 增大字體 作者:佚名  來源:www.zrjmjx.com  發布時間:最新發布
    BDF技術在電力通信網主備鏈路切換中的應用研究是小柯畢業論文網通過網絡搜集,并由本站工作人員整理后發布的,BDF技術在電力通信網主備鏈路切換中的應用研究是篇質量較高的學術論文,供本站訪問者學習和學術交流參考之用,不可用于其他商業目的,BDF技術在電力通信網主備鏈路切換中的應用研究的論文版權歸原作者所有,因網絡整理,有些文章作者不詳,敬請諒解,如需轉摘,請注明出處小柯論文網,如果此論文無法滿足您的論文要求,您可以申請本站幫您定制論文,以下是正文。
     摘 要:在電力通信系統中,為了保障網絡的可靠性,通常采用雙設備雙鏈路的進行冗余備份,以便于在設備或鏈路發生故障的時候能夠切換保持網絡穩定。本文針對電力系統中常用到的靜態路由結合VRRP主備切換收斂時間慢、無法檢測遠端鏈路狀態的不足,采用BFD檢測技術輔助靜態路由協議進行遠端鏈路狀態檢測,解決了靜態路由無法檢測遠端鏈路故障而導致主備鏈路無法切換的問題,同時大大提高了主備鏈路的切換的收斂時間。 
      關鍵詞:BFD 靜態路由 VRRP 
      中圖分類號:TM73 文獻標識碼:A 文章編號:1672-3791(2018)12(b)-00-02 
      隨著電力系統智能化、數字化方向發展的不斷深入,各變電站及二級單位與主站的通信業務越來越多,電力通信系統的可靠性和穩定性顯得越來越重要。為保障通信業務的穩定可靠,通信主站通常采用雙設備雙鏈路與站端設備相連,主站核心交換機與主站服務器之間也通過雙鏈路互聯。主站兩臺核心設備間采用VRRP協議實現設備和鏈路的冗余備份,若因其中同一臺設備或鏈路故障,網絡負荷或流量能夠快速切換至另一臺設備或鏈路來承擔,以保障電網通信業務的連續和整體通信網絡的穩定可靠。 
      1 BFD協議 
      BFD協議是一個簡單的hello協議,通過在相鄰設備之間所建立的通道上周期性地發送檢測報文,如果在某個規定的時間內沒有收到對端的檢測報文,則認為這條到相鄰系統的雙向通信發生了故障。BFD的監測時間的開銷可以根據需要進行調整,可以靈活適應不同協議的不同要求。 
      2 存在問題 
      在常用組網結構中,對固定IP服務器的訪問通信采用靜態路由的方式,當路由器A與服務器段核心交換機A之間的鏈路為直連鏈路時,路由器A和路由器B分別配置至服務器端地址的靜態路由,核心交換機A配置業務接入段的靜態路由,路由器A和路由器B之間通過VRRP協議可以實現接入終端至服務器端的主備鏈路切換。但由于VRRP的故障檢測時間為秒級,一旦Master發生故障,會導致部分高速實時數據丟失或視頻圖像幀丟失。在空間及傳輸資源受限的情況下,路由器A和服務器核心交換機采用中繼設備的情況下或者路由器A和路由器B通過交換機在與核心交換機A互聯的情況下,若路由器A和中繼設備之間的鏈路發生中斷的,雖然VRRP協議能夠正常運行,但接入終端依然無法訪問服務器。 
      3 原因分析 
      由于VRRP協議通過發送通告報文進行鏈路檢測,如果Backup在等待3個通告報文時間內(默認為3S)沒有收到對方的VRRP通告報文,則認為自己是Master路由器,才會進行狀態切換。因此VRRP協議狀態切換的時間都在秒級,收斂速度較慢。如果在靜態路由鏈路上存在中繼設備,則在路由器A與中繼鏈路發生中斷后,雖然路由器A能夠檢測到其上聯鏈路發生中斷,通過VRRP協議降低自身優先級,將設備切換為backup狀態,路由器B將由原來的backup狀態切換為Master狀態。但由于中繼器和核心交換機A之間的鏈路沒有中斷,配置在核心交換機A上的靜態路由無法檢測遠端鏈路狀態,靜態路由仍然將指向路由器A的靜態路由有效,當服務器返回業務接入點的數據包達到核心交換機A時,核心交換機A仍然將數據包通過與路由器A的互聯端口進行轉發,而此時核心交換機A和路由A的互聯鏈路已經中斷,因此出現了接入終端不能訪問服務器的情況。 
      4 優化方案 
      根據目前網絡存在的問題,本文采用BFD探測技術結合靜態路由協議檢測路由器A和服務器端核心交換機間的鏈路情況,在鏈路故障的情況下,根據BFD檢測結果啟動備用靜態路由,以達到主備鏈路快速切換的目的,同時使用BFD結合VRRP來監測Master和Backup鏈路的狀態,能夠實現主備鏈路的快速切換,切換速度可以達到毫秒級(見圖1)。 
      5 模擬仿真測試 
      根據優化方案,利用華三HCL軟件搭建仿真環境(見圖2)進行測試,由3臺路由器、2臺交換機和1臺PC及組成環狀網,RouterA、routerB、RouterC之間運行靜態路由協議,同時RouterA和RouterB之間運行VRRP路由協議實現主備鏈路切換。SWB模擬路由器RTC與路由器RTA、RTB之間的中繼設備。 
      6 結果分析 
      從表1、表2測試結果可以看出,未配置BFD技術時,在RTC只配置靜態路由的情況下,若主用鏈路PC-RTA-RTC因故障發生中斷的情況下,雖然VRRP能夠感知RTA的上行鏈路發生中斷,將主用鏈路切換至RTB,但是由于RTC無法感知RTC與RTA之間的鏈路情況,在RTC中仍然將RTC-RTA之間的靜態路由作為優選路由,因而在RTC與RTA之間鏈路發生中斷的時候,網絡出現中斷,此時,備用鏈路無法正常通信。當RTA與RTC之間的鏈路重新恢復的時候,RTA通過VRRP協議將主用鏈路切換至PC-RTA-RTC,通信恢復,但網絡收斂速度較慢。在RTC及RTA、RTB端配置了BFD協議的情況下,若主用鏈路PC-RTA-RTC因故障發生中斷的情況下,VRRP能夠感知RTA的上行鏈路發生中斷,將主用鏈路切換至備用,切換速度小于200ms,下行鏈路至服務器通信未見明顯中斷;當主用鏈路恢復后,備用鏈路能夠馬上切換至主用鏈路,切換速度小于200ms,下行鏈路至服務器通信未見明顯中斷。由此可見,BFD協議可以有效解決靜態路由無法檢測遠端鏈路狀態導致VRRP切換不成功的問題,同時可以加快鏈路主備切換速度,提高網絡可靠性。 
      7 結語 
      使用靜態路由結合BFD的方式可以彌補靜態路由缺少故障探測點的弱點,又可以使網絡快速收斂,從而達到故障的快速發現、業務快速恢復的目的。 
      參考文獻 
      [1] 劉少君,鄒昊東,夏飛.雙向轉發檢測(BFD)在電力信息網第二匯聚點中的應用[J].中國電力教育,2014(9):250-251,260. 
      [2] 王坦,仝磊,郭學義,等.基于BFD檢測的靜態路由切換研究[J].自動化技術與應用,2015,34(8):42-46. 
      [3] 劉勇.電力通信網中通信電源故障分析與維護探討[J].山東工業技術,2018(24):110.
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